Fenugreek is an annual herb of the family Leguminosae. The whole plant has aroma, flowering period from April to June, fruiting period from July to August. More cultivation. The main production Anhui, Sichuan, Henan.
Stems erect, many clustered, sparsely hairy. Three compound leaves alternate; leaflets are long ovate or ovate-lanceolate, with trichomes on both sides; petiole long, stipules and petiole commissure. Flowers sessile, 1-2 buds axillary; calyx tubular; corolla butterfly-shaped, white, later faded yellowish, base purplish; stamens 10, 2 body; ovary linear. The pods are slender, flat-cylindrical, slightly curved, with reticular veins and pilose, apex long. Flowering from April to June, fruiting period from July to August.
Seeds contain gentianine, papaya, choline, fenugreek alkaloids and other alkaloids, saponins are mainly diosgenin, saponins, and a small amount of saponins, traces of saponins. Separation of arabinose glycosides such as vitexin, vitexin-7-glucoside, valerianin, or isoquercitrin, glucosinolates such as glucose rhamnoses, quercetin, luteolin, and other flavonoids. The general composition of the seed is: moisture 10.30%, ash 3.15%, fat 7.61%, total protein 16.97%, total sugar 3.68%, cellulose 6.4%, hemicellulose 11.98%. The fatty oil had 92.9% of solid fatty acids, 1.5% of volatile fatty acids, and 0.9% of unsaponifiable components; 6.25% of lecithin and 0.5 of phytosterols. The main fatty acids are linoleic acid and palmitic acid, and a small amount of oleic acid and linolenic acid. 55% of nuclear protein in protein. The total sugar is mainly galactose and mannan, but also contains vitamin B1-320 microgram%. The leaf contains about 43 mg % ascorbic acid. Whole grass is also rich in calcium, iron, carotene and so on.
Fenugreek extract can be used for daily chemical products, tobacco, and hygienic products for flavoring, as a raw material for commodity flavors, industrial flavors.